Marine Protected Areas and Electronic Navigational Charts: Legal Foundation, Mapping Methods, Portrayal for IHO S-122 Standard and Integration Services

TitleMarine Protected Areas and Electronic Navigational Charts: Legal Foundation, Mapping Methods, Portrayal for IHO S-122 Standard and Integration Services
Publication TypeJournal Article
YearSubmitted
AuthorsContarinis, S, Kastrisios, C, Nakos, B
JournalEuro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration
PublisherSpringer
KeywordsEcosystem Protection Zone (EPZ), Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS), Electronic Navigational Chart (ENC), ENCs Portrayal, Environmental Risk Contour (ERC), Environmentally Sensitive Sea Areas (ESSA), IHO S-100 Standard, IHO S-122 Product Specification, Marine Information Overlay (MIO), Marine Protected Areas (MPA)

The marine environment is frequently degraded by human activities, including overfishing, marine mammal strikes, and maritime accidents. A strategic instrument for the sustainable conservation of the fragile marine environment is the designation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within which various regulations may exist. Modern electronic navigational chart systems may be used, by both vessels onboard and the operations centres onshore, to enforce environmental regulations and monitoring of vessels passage and activities in MPAs. The capability of the new International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) S-101 standard for Electronic Navigational Charts (ENCs) to support Marine Information Overlays (MIOs) enriches the provided information, as it includes both static and dynamic information such as vessels traffic, tides, currents, weather conditions as well as essential information for sensitive MPAs. IHO S-122 Product Specification has been developed to encapsulate geospatial information about MPAs, however the present edition does not specify portrayal. This paper reviews the legal foundation for the protection of marine mammals as well as the mapping methods used in selected use cases and proposes intuitive portrayal symbols for depicting on ENCs the type of MPAs in combination with the regulations to be enforced. It also discusses the concepts of Ecosystem Protection Zones (EPZs) and Environmental Risk Contours (ERCs) that can facilitate environmental risk-based voyage planning and preventive alarm services through Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS).

Refereed DesignationRefereed